11/20 By admin
The Fracture Resistance Of Bonded Au Wires For Interconnection
International Journal Of Electrical Power & Energy Systems
The constructing panel forty preferably comprises a cementitious material such as cement or concrete. The constructing panel forty could also be precast or forged-in-place within the building structure, or prepared by another operable method. The constructing could also guided breathing meditation audio lecture be stable or have a hole interior. Structures of building panels and their preparation are recognized within the artwork, and do not kind a part of the present invention. A virtue of the present invention is that it’s operable with all kinds of kinds of building panels.
The current approach achieves enough energy for static and seismic loadings. It also avoids corrosion typically related to the usage of metal interconnectors, and consequently maintains stable energy properties for prolonged intervals of time. The current approach could also be utilized in new development and in repairing/retrofitting applications with equally advantageous outcomes.
It may be used to type walls, flooring, and/or ceilings. Thereby, conductor actions at a connection interface of the coaxial connector 1 which can otherwise contribute to the generation of passive inter-modulation distortion could also be reduced.
The length of overlap L of the sheets, and thence the connector plate, over the building panels is desirably adequate to permit a full loading of the fibers in the composite materials by a shear-loading mechanism. The most effective use of the composite materials is thereby obtained. To obtain full utilization of the power capability of the fibers within the composite materials, the overlap size L must be no less than as great as Ld . If L is lower than Ld , the invention remains operable although the fiber energy isn’t absolutely utilized. If L is greater than Ld , the fiber strength is fully utilized but the connector plate is excessively long and no additional benefit is obtained.
5 is illustrated as extending above the face 42. Any operable association of this kind could also be used.
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As many connector plates 60 could also be used alongside the lengths of the edges fifty four and 56 as desired, and could also be made as wide as desired, to attain explicit power values for the interconnection between the constructing panels 50 and 52. 4 two connector plates 60 a and 60 b are illustrated. The connector plates 60 a and 60 b are related, except for their method of connection to the building panels 50 and fifty two. four, 5, and 6 is joined to the building panels 50 and fifty two solely by an adhesive bond via the adhesive layer 48.
That is, the connector plate 60 is custom fabricated in each joint. The result is that the connector plate 60 is precisely sized and positioned for the particular joint. This method is advantageous as a result of the joints and positioning of the constructing panels 50 and 52 usually are not always exact, because of their massive dimension and weight. The hole 58 is filled with the non-brittle material 59. A connector plate 60 is furnished and used to attach together the first constructing panel 50 and the second constructing panel fifty two.
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The present strategy permits massive constructions to be fabricated using constructing panels which might be linked together at the development web site with the composite connector plates of the invention. The composite connector plates usually are not topic to the types of corrosion that weaken typical steel connectors over time, in order that the building power stays at the initial design level. The composite supplies are lighter than metal and could also be dealt with extra readily throughout fabrication.
The connector plate may be fabricated in place, by a collation, bonding, and curing process. Plies of the composite materials are furnished and collated to kind a multi-ply stack decided to have the required energy properties after curing. The plies are bonded together by curing, either at room temperature or by heating to a curing temperature. This approach permits the connector plate to be custom-made for each pair of constructing panels.
In a preferred approach, there are a number of layers or plies of the sheets of prepreg composite materials positioned overlying and contacting one another. 5 and 6 illustrate a total of four plies sixty two, sixty four, 66, and sixty eight collated into the recess 46, however there could also be more or fewer plies in any particular situation. 6 reveals the construction with the overlying plies removed for instance the orientations of the fibers within the plies.
One skilled in the art will respect that a strain aid 16 in accordance with the invention may enhance connector body 10 to outer conductor four interconnection power and environmental seal. Thereby, the further adoption of aluminum material use in the coaxial connector and/or coaxial cable arts is enabled, which in turn could enable significant material value financial savings for connector and coaxial cable producers. A strain reduction for a coaxial cable and coaxial connector interconnection is provided as an injection moldable polymer materials surrounding the interconnection. The injection moldable material fills a solder pre-type cavity between an outer conductor of the coaxial cable and an inside diameter of a bore of the connector physique, strengthening and environmentally sealing the interconnection. Where the outer conductor is corrugated, the polymer materials could also be provided overlaying an exposed portion of the corrugations and/or filling portions of a corrugation trough between an outer jacket and the outer diameter of the outer conductor.
The hole 58 is full of any non-brittle materials 59, such as, for example, polystyrene foam or polyurethane foam. The filling of the gap fifty eight may be completed either before or after the connector plate is furnished and hooked up. The constructing panels could type the partitions, flooring, ceilings, or different structural components of the constructing.
The orientations of the fibers may be established at different values as desired for particular isotropic or anisotropic energy values of the connector plate 60, relying upon the panel configuration. For example, where out-of-aircraft bending exists on the panel interface, further fiber reinforced plastic plies may be added within the 90-degree path . In forming the connector plate, the sheets of the unidirectional cloth are minimize to the right dimension to be received inside the recess forty six and to span the hole 58 between the two constructing panels 50 and 52, as illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6 for one of the connectors 60 a of FIG. 1 depicts a most well-liked approach for training the invention.
custom fabricating the connector plate in place by collating and applying plies of the composite material to the primary constructing panel and to the second building panel. Tests had been performed by which the operability of the current method was established for full-measurement building panels. The method described herein was followed to form the interconnections, and the resulting joined panels have been examined to failure in shear loading.
After the plies of the connector plate 60 are collated, the plies are bonded to one another and to the building panel. A polymeric matrix, preferably an epoxy, is used to form the composite materials.
This invention relates to a strain reduction for a coaxial RF connector. More particularly, the invention pertains to a pressure reduction moldable a couple of corrugated outer conductor cable to connector interconnection, offering sealing and energy traits which enhance the coaxial connector to coaxial cable interconnection. affixing the connector plate to the primary constructing panel and the second constructing panel using the adhesive having a tensile strength of at least about three,600 pounds per square inch.
Alternatively, normal connector plates could also be fabricated remotely and bonded to the constructing panels at the construction web site. Additional energy is achieved by lengthening the connector plate in the path parallel to the edges of the constructing panels, or through the use of a number of connector plates.
A structure is furnished, with constructing panels which might be to be related collectively. A first constructing panel is provided, numeral 20, and a second constructing panel is offered, numeral 22.
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Each of the building panels 50 and fifty two are of the type mentioned typically in relation to FIGS. The constructing panels 50 and 52 are usually both precast and positioned with a crane, or solid in place with the gap fifty eight therebetween. The hole 58 is usually about ½ inch in width, although this dimension is not crucial as long as the connector plate can span the hole 58.
8A-8C illustrate the becoming a member of of two non-coplanar building panels 88 and 90 with a number of L-shaped connector plates. 8A, a single connector plate 92 a is used on the inside surfaces of the building panels 88 and ninety; in FIG. 8B, a single connector plate 92 b is used on the skin surfaces of the building panels 88 and ninety; and in FIG. 8C each connector plates 92 a and 92 b are used. Such a scenario involving nonplanar building panels 88 and 90 could be found, for instance, at the joint between two walls, between a wall and a ceiling, between a wall and a flooring, or between two non-coplanar wall, ceiling, or floor segments.
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The connector plate desirably overlaps each of the first constructing panel and the second constructing panel by an quantity sufficient to fully load the fibers in the connector plate. According to calculation, the connector plate ideally overlaps each of the primary constructing panel and the second building guided meditation for relaxation audio lecture panel by an amount Ld of at least about 2tE11e11/f. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides a technique for interconnecting building panels of all kinds of varieties, and the connected buildings.
The floor of the panel is ready for the appliance of the connector plate. The adhesive bond strength of the connector plate to the constructing panel is essential, as will be mentioned subsequently.
The connector plate 60 is made from a composite material comprising fibers, preferably carbon fibers, embedded in a nonmetallic matrix, ideally an epoxy matrix. The furnishing and connecting could also be accomplished in any operable method. In one strategy, the connector plate 60 is separately fabricated as a last cured freestanding article after which joined to the building panels 50 and 52 utilizing an adhesive and/or a mechanical fastener of a kind different from an adhesive, such as an anchor bolt. This strategy, although operable, is less favored than a second strategy to be described subsequent. In accordance with the invention, a connection is fashioned between a primary constructing panel having a first-panel face and a first-panel fringe of the primary-panel face, and a second building panel having a second-panel face and a second-panel edge of the second-panel face.
The testing usually verified the determination of Ld and the sufficient energy of the fiber bolstered composite connections. Most preferably the connector plate contains carbon fibers embedded in an natural matrix. The connector plate may be prepared as a plurality of plies of fibers, similar to carbon fibers, embedded in an organic matrix. In one approach, the fibers are carbon fibers which are unidirectional inside each ply, lie parallel to the faces of the panels, and are oriented at an acceptable angle to the panel edge relying on the panel configuration.
The first-panel edge and the second-panel edge are adjoining to each other with a gap therebetween. The technique contains furnishing a connector plate made from a composite material of fibers embedded in a matrix, and connecting the first constructing panel and the second constructing panel collectively using the connector plate.
A common-type building panel 40 illustrated in FIG. 2 is representative of the primary and second building panels. The building panel forty has a face 42 and an edge forty four of the face forty two. The constructing panel 40 is illustrated as a rectangular flat panel, however it might be of any operable form.
The step of connecting includes the step of affixing the connector plate to the primary-panel face and to the second-panel face and lengthening across the hole between the primary-panel edge and the second-panel edge. The gap is crammed with a non-brittle material. The preceding dialogue has focused on using the connector plate 60 to attach building panels 50 and fifty two whose faces are essentially coplanar. Employee Testimonials may also be used where the constructing panels are not coplanar.
- 4, 5, and 6 is joined to the building panels 50 and 52 solely by an adhesive bond by way of the adhesive layer 48.
- 4 two connector plates 60 a and 60 b are illustrated.
- The connector plates 60 a and 60 b are comparable, except for their manner of connection to the constructing panels 50 and 52.
- As many connector plates 60 may be used alongside the lengths of the edges fifty four and fifty six as desired, and could also be made as broad as desired, to achieve explicit power values for the interconnection between the constructing panels 50 and fifty two.
The procedures used to form this connection are the same as described previously, which description is included here. A virtue of the current collation approach for preparing the connector plates is that they may be given any necessary shapes to correctly span the hole between the 2 connector plates. The sheets of prepreg composite material may be oriented in any desired trend.
Cementitious building panels are connected together using a connector plate made of a composite material of carbon fibers embedded in an organic matrix. 9 is a circulate chart for a preferred strategy of designing a connector plate using the method of the invention. The material properties of the composite material that constitutes the connector plate are obtained, numeral a hundred, usually from the supplier of the composite materials or by exams of specimens. The shear masses on the building panels 40 are decided, numeral 102, from structural analysis of the constructing itself. The required connection floor area on the location of the connector plate to hold the shear hundreds is calculated, numeral 106.
The results of the material elimination is a recess 46 in the face forty two of the building panel forty and extending to the edge 44, illustrated in FIG. After the recess 46 is fashioned, dust and loose particles are eliminated by vacuuming.
In the subsequent overlying ply sixty six, the fibers are oriented parallel to line seventy four at an angle of −α levels to the perimeters 54 and 56. In the next overlying ply 68, which is the top layer in this four-ply embodiment, the fibers are oriented parallel to line seventy six at an angle of +α levels to the edges 54 and 56. In a preferred case, a is about 45 degrees, but the invention isn’t so restricted.
The scope of the invention isn’t, nevertheless, restricted to this preferred embodiment. An adhesive materials is applied into the recess prior to putting the connector plate into the recess.
From this information, the development size Ld is calculated within the manner described earlier, numeral 108. The size (width b and depth d, see FIG. 6) of the connector plate 60 is selected, numeral 112. If this connector plate 60 is enough to meet failure standards of the interconnection between the building panels, numeral 114, the design is accomplished, numeral 116. If the connector plate 60 does not meet the failure standards, the design process a hundred and ten, 112 is repeated.
four and seven is joined to the building panels 50 and fifty two by the adhesive bond by way of the adhesive layer forty eight, and moreover with a mechanical fastener of a sort different from an adhesive, corresponding to an illustrated anchor bolt 78. The anchor bolt seventy eight is inserted right into a pre-drilled hole eighty containing an epoxy anchoring insert. A neoprene pad 82 overlies the connector plate 60, and a fender washer eighty four is positioned between a nut 86 that’s threaded onto the anchor bolt seventy eight and the neoprene pad eighty two. 7 is illustrated as having an upper floor that lies flush with the face forty two of the constructing panel, to be able to accommodate this mechanical fastener.
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The polymeric matrix material, furnished in a liquid form, is flowed into the collated association of sheets and thereafter cured, numeral 34. The plies are simultaneously bonded to the constructing panels via the adhesive layer forty eight. The curing is accomplished in accordance with the producer’s suggestions for the actual natural material used because the matrix of the composite materials. For some matrix supplies, curing is accomplished at room temperature, and for different matrix supplies, curing is achieved by heating to elevated temperature. The heating, if used, is achieved by any operable approach, corresponding to warmth lamps.
The fibers in the varied plies all lie parallel to the face 42. In the lowest ply sixty two that contacts the adhesive layer 48, the unidirectional fibers have an orientation that is also parallel to line 70. The fibers are oriented at an angle of −α levels to the sides fifty four and 56. In the following overlying ply sixty four, the fibers are oriented parallel to line seventy two at an angle of +α levels to the edges fifty four and fifty six.
The connector plate may be affixed to no less than one of many first plate and the second plate with an adhesive and/or with an anchor bolt. The adhesive ought to have a power of at least about 3600 kilos per square inch so as to achieve load transfer into the connector plate.
The surface of a cementitious building panel could also be improved by removing surface material to type recesses in the two constructing panels, numerals 24 and 26. Building panels typically have a skinny layer of cement paste at their surfaces to enhance their look and seal the surfaces. The cement paste on the surface of the panels is eliminated to a depth of about fraction (1/16) inch, thereby exposing the aggregate of the concrete. The most popular method to removing the floor layer of the building panels is with a water jet working at a pressure of about forty,000 pounds per sq. inch. The floor layer isn’t removed over the whole surface, but solely to a enough lateral extent to receive the connector plate.
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